The course is aimed to develop problem-solving strategies, techniques and skills that can be applied to computers and problems in other areas which give students an introduction to computer and analytical skills to be used in their subsequent course work and professional development. Emphasis of this course is to act as an introduction to the thinking world of computers, to help students develop the logic, ability to solve the problems efficiently using C programming. Knowledge in a programming language is prerequisite to the study of most of computer science courses. This knowledge area consists of those skills and concepts that are essential to problem-solving and programming practice independent of the underlying paradigm. Student will learn various concepts and techniques for problem-solving and will implement those ideas using C programming.
Problem - Solving Techniques Steps for Problem - Solving Using Computer as a Problem-Solving Tool Design of Algorithms Definition Features of Algorithm Criteria to be followed by an Algorithm Top Down Design Analysis of Algorithm Efficiency Redundant Computations Referencing Array Elements Inefficiency Due to Late Termination o Early Detection of Desired Output Condition o Trading Storage for Efficient Gains Analysis of Algorithm Complexity Computational Complexity o The Order of Notation o Rules for using the Big - O Notation o Worst and Average Case Behavior Flowcharts Basic Symbols used in Flowchart DesignUnit 2: Basics of C
What is a Program and what is a Programming Language? C Language History of C Salient Features of C Structure of a C Program A Simple C Program Writing a C Program Compiling a C Program The C Compiler Syntax and Semantic Errors Link and Run the C Program Run the C Program through the Menu Run from an Executable File o Linker Errors o Logical and Runtime Errors Diagrammatic Representation of Program Execution ProcessUnit 3 : Variables and Constants
Character Set Identifiers and Keywords Rules for Forming Identifiers o Keywords Data Types and Storage Data Type Qualifiers Variables Declaring Variables Initialising Variables Constants o Integer Constants o Floating Point Constants Built-in String Functions and Applications Strlen Function o Strcpy Function Strcmp Function Strcat Function Strlwr Function Strrev Function Strspn Function Other String FunctionsUnit 4 : Expressions and Operators
Comma and Conditional Operators
Type Cast Operator
Size of Operator
Shorthand Priority of Operators
Decision Control Statements The if Statement The switch Statement Loop Control Statements The while Loop The do-while Statement o The for Loop o The Nested Loop The Goto Statement The Break Statement The Continue StatementUnit 6 : Arrays
Array Declaration Syntax of Array Declaration o Size Specification Array Initialization Initialization of Array Elements in the Declaration Character Array Initialization Subscript Processing the Arrays Multi-Dimensional Arrays o Multi-Dimensional Array Declaration o Initialization of Two-Dimensional ArraysUnit 7 : Strings
Declaration and Initialization of Strings Display of Strings Using Different Formatting Techniques Array of Strings Built-in String Functions and Applications Strlen Function o Strcpy Function Strcmp Function Strcat Function Strlwr Function Strrev Function Strspn Function Other String FunctionsUnit 8 : Functions
Definition of a Function Declaration of a Function Function Prototypes The Return Statement Types of Variables and Storage Classes Automatic Variables o External Variables o Static Variables o Register Variables Types of Function Invoking Call by Value Recursion
Declaration of Structures Accessing the Members of a Structure Initializing Structures Structures as Function Arguments Structures and Arrays Unions Initializing an Union Accessing the Members of an UnionUnit 10 : Pointers
Pointers and their Characteristics Address and Indirection Operators Pointer Type Declaration and Assignment Pointer to a Pointer Null Pointer Assignment Pointer Arithmetic Passing Pointers to Functions A Function Returning More than One Value Function Returning a Pointer Arrays and Pointers Array of Pointers Pointers and StringsUnit 11 : The C Preprocessor
# define to Implement Constants define to Create Functional Macros Reading from Other Files using # include Conditional Selection of Code using #ifdef o Using #ifdef for different computer types o Using #ifdef to temporarily remove program statements Other Preprocessor Commands Predefined Names Defined by Preprocessor Macros vs FunctionsUnit 12 : Files
File Handling in C Using File Pointers Open a file using the function fopen ( ) Close a file using the function fclose( ) Input and Output using file pointers Character Input and Output in Files o String Input / Output Functions o Formatted Input / Output Functions o Block Input / Output Functions Sequential Vs Random Access Files Positioning the File Pointer The Unbufferred I/O - The UNIX like File Routines
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