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Course Overview

The course is aimed to develop problem-solving strategies, techniques and skills that can be applied to computers and problems in other areas which give students an introduction to computer and analytical skills to be used in their subsequent course work and professional development. Emphasis of this course is to act as an introduction to the thinking world of computers, to help students develop the logic, ability to solve the problems efficiently using C programming. Knowledge in a programming language is prerequisite to the study of most of computer science courses. This knowledge area consists of those skills and concepts that are essential to problem-solving and programming practice independent of the underlying paradigm. Student will learn various concepts and techniques for problem-solving and will implement those ideas using C programming.

BLOCK 1 : An Introduction to C

Unit 1 :Problem Solving

Problem - Solving Techniques Steps for Problem - Solving
Using Computer as a Problem-Solving Tool
Design of Algorithms Definition Features of Algorithm
Criteria to be followed by an Algorithm Top Down Design
Analysis of Algorithm Efficiency
Redundant Computations Referencing Array Elements
Inefficiency Due to Late Termination
o Early Detection of Desired Output
Condition
o Trading Storage for Efficient Gains
Analysis of Algorithm Complexity
Computational Complexity
o The Order of Notation
o Rules for using the Big - O Notation
o Worst and Average Case Behavior
Flowcharts
Basic Symbols used in Flowchart Design

Unit 2: Basics of C

What is a Program and what is a Programming Language?
C Language
History of C
Salient Features of C
Structure of a C Program
A Simple C Program
Writing a C Program
Compiling a C Program
The C Compiler
Syntax and Semantic Errors
Link and Run the C Program
Run the C Program through the Menu
Run from an Executable File o Linker Errors
o Logical and Runtime Errors
Diagrammatic Representation of Program Execution Process

Unit 3 : Variables and Constants

Character Set
Identifiers and Keywords
Rules for Forming Identifiers
o Keywords Data Types and Storage Data Type Qualifiers Variables
Declaring Variables Initialising Variables
Constants
o Integer Constants
o Floating Point Constants
Built-in String Functions and Applications
Strlen Function o Strcpy Function Strcmp Function Strcat Function Strlwr Function Strrev Function Strspn Function
Other String Functions

Unit 4 : Expressions and Operators

Assignment Statements
Arithmetic Operators
Relational Operators
Logical Operators
Comma and Conditional Operators
Type Cast Operator
Size of Operator
Shorthand Priority of Operators

BLOCK 2 : Control Statements, Arrays and Functions

Unit 5 : Decision and Loop Control Statements

Decision Control Statements
The if Statement
The switch Statement
Loop Control Statements
The while Loop
The do-while Statement
o The for Loop
o The Nested Loop The Goto Statement The Break Statement The Continue Statement

Unit 6 : Arrays

Array Declaration
Syntax of Array Declaration o Size Specification
Array Initialization
Initialization of Array Elements in
the Declaration
Character Array Initialization Subscript
Processing the Arrays
Multi-Dimensional Arrays
o Multi-Dimensional Array Declaration
o Initialization of Two-Dimensional Arrays

Unit 7 : Strings

Declaration and Initialization of Strings
Display of Strings Using Different
Formatting Techniques
Array of Strings
Built-in String Functions and Applications
Strlen Function o Strcpy Function Strcmp Function Strcat Function Strlwr Function Strrev Function Strspn Function
Other String Functions

Unit 8 : Functions

Definition of a Function
Declaration of a Function
Function Prototypes
The Return Statement
Types of Variables and Storage Classes
Automatic Variables
o External Variables
o Static Variables
o Register Variables Types of Function Invoking Call by Value
Recursion

BLOCK 3 : Structures, Pointers and File Handling

Unit 9 : Structures and Unions

Declaration of Structures
Accessing the Members of a Structure
Initializing Structures
Structures as Function Arguments
Structures and Arrays
Unions
Initializing an Union
Accessing the Members of an Union

Unit 10 : Pointers

Pointers and their Characteristics Address and Indirection Operators Pointer Type Declaration and Assignment
Pointer to a Pointer
Null Pointer Assignment
Pointer Arithmetic
Passing Pointers to Functions
A Function Returning More than One Value
Function Returning a Pointer Arrays and Pointers
Array of Pointers Pointers and Strings

Unit 11 : The C Preprocessor

# define to Implement Constants
define to Create Functional Macros Reading from Other Files using # include
Conditional Selection of Code using #ifdef o Using #ifdef for different computer types
o Using #ifdef to temporarily remove program statements
Other Preprocessor Commands
Predefined Names Defined by Preprocessor Macros vs Functions

Unit 12 : Files

File Handling in C Using File Pointers
Open a file using the function fopen ( )
Close a file using the function fclose( )
Input and Output using file pointers
Character Input and Output in Files o String Input / Output Functions
o Formatted Input / Output Functions o Block Input / Output Functions Sequential Vs Random Access Files Positioning the File Pointer
The Unbufferred I/O - The UNIX like File Routines

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