In the modern era, computer system is used in most aspects of life. You may use many different types of software on a computer system for particular applications ranging from simple document creation to space data processing. But, how does the Software is executed by the Computer Hardware? The answer to this basic question is contained in this Course. This course presents an overview of the Computer Organisation. After going through this course, you will not only acquire the conceptual framework of Computer Organisation and Architecture but also would be able to use the concepts in the domain of Personal Computers. In specific, you will be able to design Digital Circuits; describe the functions of various components of Computers and their construction; and write simple Assembly Programs.
The von Neumann Architecture Instruction Execution: An Example Instruction Cycle o Interrupts o Interrupts and Instruction Cycle Computers: Then and Now o The Beginning o First Generation Computers Second Generation Computers oThird Generation Computers oLater GenerationsUnit 2 : The Data Representation
Data Representation Number Systems Decimal Representation in Computers Alphanumeric Representation Data Representation For Computation o Fixed Point Representation Decimal Fixed Point Representation oFloating Point Representation Master Slave Flip Flops oEdge Triggered Flip-flops Sequential Circuit Design Examples of Sequential Circuits o Registers Counters – Asynchronous Counters oSynchronous Counters oRAM Design of a Sample Counter Error Detection And Correction CodesUnit 3 : Principles of Logic Circuits I
Logic Gates Logic Circuits Combinational Circuits Canonical and Standard Forms oMinimization of Gates Design of Combinational Circuits Examples of Logic Combinational Circuits o Adders o Decoders o Multiplexer o Encoder Programmable Logic Array oRead Only Memory ROMUnit 4: Principles of Logic Circuits I
Sequential Circuits: The Definition Flip Flops Basic Flip-Flops oExcitation Tables Partitioning & Formatting: FAT, Inode o Drive Cache o Hard Drive Interface: IDE, SCSI, EIDE, Ultra DMA & ATA/66 Removable Drives o Floppy Drives o CD-ROM & DVD-ROM Removable Storage Options Zip, Jaz & Other Cartridge Drives oRecordable CDs & DVDs oCD-R vs CD-RW oTape Backup
The Memory Hierarchy RAM, ROM, DRAM, Flash Memory Secondary Memory and Characteristics Hard Disk Drives Optical Memories CCDs, Bubble Memories RAID and its Levels The Concepts of High Speed Memories o Cache Memory Cache Organisation oMemory Interleaving oAssociative Memory Virtual Memory The Memory System of Micro-Computer SIMM, DIMM, etc., Memory Chips oSDRAM, RDRAM, Cache RAM Types of MemoryUnit 2 : The Input/Output System
Input / Output Devices or External or Peripheral Devices The Input Output Interface The Device Controllers and its Structure o Device Controller Structure of an Input /Output Interface Device Drivers Input Output Techniques o Programmed Input /Output o Interrupt-Driven Input /Output o Interrupt-Processing o DMA (Direct Memory Access) Input Output Processors External Communication InterfacesUnit 3 : Secondary Storage Techniques
Secondary Storage Systems Hard Drives Characteristics: Drive Speed, Access Time, Rotation Speed Partitioning & Formatting: FAT, Inode o Drive Cache o Hard Drive Interface: IDE, SCSI, EIDE, Ultra DMA & ATA/66 Removable Drives o Floppy Drives o CD-ROM & DVD-ROM Removable Storage Options Zip, Jaz & Other Cartridge Drives oRecordable CDs & DVDs oCD-R vs CD-RW oTape BackupUnit 4: I/O Technology
Keyboard Keyboard Layout oKeyboard Touch oKeyboard Technology Mouse Video Cards o Resolution Colour Depth oVideo Memory oRefresh Rates oGraphic Accelerators and 3-D Accelerators oVideo Card Interfaces Monitors Cathode Ray Tubes oShadow Mask oDot Pitch oMonitor Resolutions o DPI Interlacing oBandwidth Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) Digital Camera Sound Cards Printers oClassification of Printers oPrint Resolutions oPrint Speed oPrint Quality oColour Management Modems Scanners o Resolution Dynamic Range/Colour Depth oSize and Speed oScanning Tips Power Supply SMPS (Switched Mode Power Supply)
Instruction Set Characteristics Instruction Set Design Considerations Operand Data Types oTypes of Instructions oNumber of Addresses in an Instruction Addressing Schemes Immediate Addressing oDirect Addressing oIndirect Addressing oRegister Addressing oRegister Indirect Addressing oIndexed Addressing Scheme oBase Register Addressing oRelative Addressing Scheme oStack Addressing Instruction Set and Format Design Issues o Instruction Length o Allocation of Bits Among Opcode and Operand o Variable Length of Instructions Example of Instruction FormatUnit 2 : Registers, Micro-Operations and Instruction Execution
Basic CPU Structure Register Organization Programmer Visible Registers oStatus and Control Registers General Registers in a Processor Micro-operation Concepts Register Transfer Micro-operations oArithmetic Micro-operations oLogic Micro-operations oShift Micro-operations Instruction Execution and Micro-operations Instruction PipeliningUnit 3 : ALU Organisation
ALU Organisation A Simple ALU Organization o A Sample ALU Design o Arithmetic ProcessorsUnit 4 : The Control Unit
The Control Unit The Hardwired Control Wilkes Control The Micro-Programmed Control The Micro-Instructions Types of Micro-Instructions o Control Memory Organisation o Micro-Instruction Formats The Execution of Micro-ProgramUnit 5 : Reduced Instruction Set Computer Architecture
Introduction to RISC o Importance of RISC Processors o Reasons for Increased Complexity o High Level Language Program Characteristics RISC Architecture The Use of Large Register File Comments on RISC RISC Pipelining
Microcomputer Architecture Structure of 8086 CPU The Bus Interface Unit oExecution Unit (EU) Register Set of 8086 Instruction Set of 8086 Data Transfer Instructions oArithmetic Instructions oBit Manipulation Instructions oProgram Execution Transfer Instructions oString Instructions oProcessor Control Instructions Addressing Modes Register Addressing Mode oImmediate Addressing Mode oDirect Addressing Mode oIndirect Addressing ModeUnit 2: Introduction to Assembly Language Programming
The Need and Use of the Assembly Language Assembly Program Execution An Assembly Program and its Components The Program Annotation oDirectives Input Output in Assembly Program o Interrupts DOS Function Calls (Using INT 21H) The Types of Assembly Programs o COM Programs How to Write Good Assembly ProgramsUnit 3: Assembly Language Programming (Part – I)
Simple Assembly Programs o Data Transfer o Simple Arithmetic Application Application Using Shift Operations oLarger of the Two Numbers Programming With Loops and Comparisons o Simple Program Loops Find the Largest and the Smallest Array Values Character Coded Data oCode Conversion Programming for Arithmetic and String Operations o String Processing o EXE Programs Some More Arithmetic ProblemsUnit 4 : Assembly Language Programming (Part – I)
Use of Arrays in Assembly Modular Programming o The stack o FAR and NEAR Procedures Parameter Passing in Procedures oExternal Procedures Interfacing Assembly Language Routines to High Level Language Programs o Simple Interfacing Interfacing Subroutines With Parameter Passing Interrupts Device Drivers in Assembly
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