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Course Overview

In the modern era, computer system is used in most aspects of life. You may use many different types of software on a computer system for particular applications ranging from simple document creation to space data processing. But, how does the Software is executed by the Computer Hardware? The answer to this basic question is contained in this Course. This course presents an overview of the Computer Organisation. After going through this course, you will not only acquire the conceptual framework of Computer Organisation and Architecture but also would be able to use the concepts in the domain of Personal Computers. In specific, you will be able to design Digital Circuits; describe the functions of various components of Computers and their construction; and write simple Assembly Programs.

BLOCK 1: Introduction to Digital Circuits

Unit 1 : The Basic Computer

The von Neumann Architecture Instruction Execution: An Example Instruction Cycle
o Interrupts
o Interrupts and Instruction Cycle
Computers: Then and Now
o The Beginning
o First Generation Computers
Second Generation Computers
oThird Generation Computers
oLater Generations

Unit 2 : The Data Representation

Data Representation
Number Systems
Decimal Representation in Computers
Alphanumeric Representation
Data Representation For Computation
o Fixed Point Representation
Decimal Fixed Point Representation
oFloating Point Representation
Master Slave Flip Flops
oEdge Triggered Flip-flops
Sequential Circuit Design Examples of Sequential Circuits
o Registers
Counters – Asynchronous Counters
oSynchronous Counters
oRAM
Design of a Sample Counter
Error Detection And Correction Codes

Unit 3 : Principles of Logic Circuits I

Logic Gates
Logic Circuits
Combinational Circuits
Canonical and Standard Forms
oMinimization of Gates
Design of Combinational Circuits Examples of Logic Combinational Circuits
o Adders
o Decoders
o Multiplexer
o Encoder
Programmable Logic Array
oRead Only Memory ROM

Unit 4: Principles of Logic Circuits I

Sequential Circuits: The Definition Flip Flops
Basic Flip-Flops oExcitation Tables
Partitioning & Formatting: FAT, Inode
o Drive Cache
o Hard Drive Interface: IDE, SCSI, EIDE, Ultra DMA & ATA/66
Removable Drives
o Floppy Drives
o CD-ROM & DVD-ROM Removable Storage Options
Zip, Jaz & Other Cartridge Drives
oRecordable CDs & DVDs
oCD-R vs CD-RW
oTape Backup

BLOCK 2 : Basic Computer Organisation

Unit 1 : The Memory System

The Memory Hierarchy
RAM, ROM, DRAM, Flash Memory
Secondary Memory and Characteristics
Hard Disk Drives
Optical Memories
CCDs, Bubble Memories
RAID and its Levels
The Concepts of High Speed Memories
o Cache Memory
Cache Organisation
oMemory Interleaving
oAssociative Memory
Virtual Memory
The Memory System of Micro-Computer
SIMM, DIMM, etc., Memory Chips
oSDRAM, RDRAM, Cache RAM Types of Memory

Unit 2 : The Input/Output System

Input / Output Devices or External or Peripheral Devices
The Input Output Interface
The Device Controllers and its Structure
o Device Controller
Structure of an Input /Output Interface
Device Drivers
Input Output Techniques
o Programmed Input /Output
o Interrupt-Driven Input /Output
o Interrupt-Processing
o DMA (Direct Memory Access)
Input Output Processors
External Communication Interfaces

Unit 3 : Secondary Storage Techniques

Secondary Storage Systems
Hard Drives
Characteristics: Drive Speed, Access Time, Rotation Speed
Partitioning & Formatting: FAT, Inode
o Drive Cache
o Hard Drive Interface: IDE, SCSI, EIDE, Ultra DMA & ATA/66
Removable Drives
o Floppy Drives
o CD-ROM & DVD-ROM Removable Storage Options
Zip, Jaz & Other Cartridge Drives
oRecordable CDs & DVDs
oCD-R vs CD-RW
oTape Backup

Unit 4: I/O Technology

Keyboard
Keyboard Layout
oKeyboard Touch
oKeyboard Technology
Mouse
Video Cards
o Resolution
Colour Depth
oVideo Memory
oRefresh Rates
oGraphic Accelerators and 3-D Accelerators
oVideo Card Interfaces
Monitors
Cathode Ray Tubes
oShadow Mask
oDot Pitch
oMonitor Resolutions
o DPI
Interlacing
oBandwidth
Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) Digital Camera
Sound Cards Printers
oClassification of Printers
oPrint Resolutions
oPrint Speed
oPrint Quality
oColour Management
Modems
Scanners
o Resolution
Dynamic Range/Colour Depth
oSize and Speed
oScanning Tips
Power Supply
SMPS (Switched Mode Power Supply)

BLOCK 3 : The Central Processing Unit

Unit 1 : Instruction Set Architecture

Instruction Set Characteristics Instruction Set Design Considerations
Operand Data Types
oTypes of Instructions
oNumber of Addresses in an
Instruction
Addressing Schemes
Immediate Addressing
oDirect Addressing
oIndirect Addressing
oRegister Addressing
oRegister Indirect Addressing
oIndexed Addressing Scheme
oBase Register Addressing
oRelative Addressing Scheme
oStack Addressing
Instruction Set and Format Design Issues
o Instruction Length
o Allocation of Bits Among Opcode and Operand
o Variable Length of Instructions
Example of Instruction Format

Unit 2 : Registers, Micro-Operations and Instruction Execution

Basic CPU Structure
Register Organization
Programmer Visible Registers
oStatus and Control Registers
General Registers in a Processor Micro-operation Concepts
Register Transfer Micro-operations
oArithmetic Micro-operations
oLogic Micro-operations
oShift Micro-operations
Instruction Execution and Micro-operations Instruction Pipelining

Unit 3 : ALU Organisation

ALU Organisation
A Simple ALU Organization
o A Sample ALU Design o Arithmetic Processors

Unit 4 : The Control Unit

The Control Unit
The Hardwired Control
Wilkes Control
The Micro-Programmed Control
The Micro-Instructions
Types of Micro-Instructions
o Control Memory Organisation
o Micro-Instruction Formats
The Execution of Micro-Program

Unit 5 : Reduced Instruction Set Computer Architecture

Introduction to RISC
o Importance of RISC Processors
o Reasons for Increased Complexity
o High Level Language Program Characteristics
RISC Architecture
The Use of Large Register File Comments on RISC RISC Pipelining

BLOCK 4 : Assembly Language Programming

Unit 1 : Microprocessor Architecture

Microcomputer Architecture Structure of 8086 CPU
The Bus Interface Unit
oExecution Unit (EU)
Register Set of 8086
Instruction Set of 8086
Data Transfer Instructions
oArithmetic Instructions
oBit Manipulation Instructions
oProgram Execution Transfer Instructions
oString Instructions
oProcessor Control Instructions
Addressing Modes
Register Addressing Mode
oImmediate Addressing Mode
oDirect Addressing Mode
oIndirect Addressing Mode

Unit 2: Introduction to Assembly Language Programming

The Need and Use of the Assembly Language
Assembly Program Execution
An Assembly Program and its Components
The Program Annotation
oDirectives
Input Output in Assembly Program o Interrupts
DOS Function Calls (Using INT 21H)
The Types of Assembly Programs
o COM Programs
How to Write Good Assembly Programs

Unit 3: Assembly Language Programming (Part – I)

Simple Assembly Programs
o Data Transfer
o Simple Arithmetic Application
Application Using Shift Operations
oLarger of the Two Numbers
Programming With Loops and Comparisons
o Simple Program Loops
Find the Largest and the Smallest Array Values
Character Coded Data
oCode Conversion
Programming for Arithmetic and String Operations
o String Processing
o EXE Programs
Some More Arithmetic Problems

Unit 4 : Assembly Language Programming (Part – I)

Use of Arrays in Assembly Modular Programming
o The stack
o FAR and NEAR Procedures
Parameter Passing in Procedures
oExternal Procedures
Interfacing Assembly Language Routines to High Level Language Programs
o Simple Interfacing
Interfacing Subroutines With Parameter Passing
Interrupts
Device Drivers in Assembly

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