In the modern era, Computer system is used in most aspects of life. You may use many different types of software on a computer system for particular applications ranging from simple document creation to space data processing. But, how does the Software is executed by the Computer Hardware? The answer to this basic question is contained in this Course. This course presents an overview of the Computer Organisation. After going through this course, you will not only acquire the conceptual framework of Computer Organisation and Architecture but also would be able to use the concepts in the domain of Personal Computers. In specific, you will be able to design digital circuits; describe the functions of various components of computers and their construction; and write simple assembly programs.
The von Neumann Architecture, Instruction Execution: An Example, Instruction Cycle Interrupts, Interrupts and Instruction Cycle, Computers: Then and Now, The Beginning, First Generation Computers, Second Generation Computers, Third Generation Computers, Later GenerationsUnit 2 : The Data Representation
Data Representation, Number Systems, Decimal Representation in Computers, Alphanumeric Representation, Data Representation for Computation, Error Detection and Correction CodesUnit 3 : Principles of Logic Circuits I
Logic Gates, Logic Circuits, Combinational Circuits, Canonical and Standard Forms,Minimization of Gates, Design of Combinational Circuits, Examples of Logic Combinational Circuits, Adders, Decoders, Multiplexer, Encoder, Programmable Logic Array, Read Only Memory ROMUnit 4 : Principles of Logic Circuits II
Sequential Circuits: The Definition, Flip Flops, Basic Flip-Flops, Excitation Tables, Master Slave Flip Flops, Edge Triggered Flip-flops, Sequential Circuit Design, Examples of Sequential Circuits, Registers, Counters – Asynchronous Counters, Synchronous Counters, RAM, Design of a Sample Counter
The Memory Hierarchy , RAM, ROM, DRAM, Flash Memory, Secondary Memory and Characteristics, Hard Disk Drives, Optical Memories, CCDs, Bubble Memories, RAID and its Levels, The Concepts of High Speed Memories, Cache Memory, Cache Organisation, Memory Interleaving , Associative Memory, Virtual Memory, The Memory System of Micro-ComputerUnit 2 : The Input/Output System
Input/Output Devices or External or Peripheral Devices, The Input Output Interface, The Device Controllers and its Structure, Device Drivers, Input Output Techniques, Programmed Input /Output, Interrupt-Driven Input /Output, Interrupt-Processing, DMA (Direct Memory Access) Input Output Processors, External Communication InterfacesUnit 3 : Secondary Storage Techniques
Secondary Storage Systems, Hard Drives & Its Characteristics, Partitioning & Formatting: FAT, Inode, Drive Cache, Hard Drive Interface: IDE, SCSI, EIDE, Ultra DMA & ATA/ 66, Removable Drives, Floppy Drives, CD-ROM & DVD-ROM, Removable Storage Options, Zip, Jaz & Other Cartridge Drives, Recordable CDs & DVDs, CD-R vs CD-RW, Tape BackupUnit 4 : I/O Technology
Keyboard, Mouse, Video Cards, Monitors, Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD), Digital Camera, Sound Cards, Printers , Classification of Printers, Modems, Scanners, Scanning Tips, Power Supply, SMPS (Switched Mode Power Supply)
Instruction Set Characteristics, Instruction Set Design Considerations, Operand Data Types, Types of Instructions, Number of Addresses in an Instruction, Addressing Schemes, Types of Addressing Schemes, Immediate Addressing, Direct Addressing, Indirect Addressing, Register Addressing, Register Indirect Addressing, Indexed Addressing Scheme, Base Register Addressing, Relative Addressing Scheme, Stack Addressing, Instruction Set and Format Design Issues, Instruction Length, Allocation of Bits Among Opcode and Operand, Variable Length of Instructions, Example of Instruction FormatUnit 2 : Registers, Micro-Operations and Instruction Execution
Basic CPU Structure, Register Organization, Programmer Visible Registers, Status and Control Registers, General Registers in a Processor, Micro-operation Concepts, Register Transfer Micro-operations, Arithmetic Micro-operations, Logic Micro-operations, Shift Micro-operations, Instruction Execution and Micro-operations, Instruction PipeliningUnit 3 : ALU Organisation
ALU Organisation, A Simple ALU Organization, A Sample ALU Design, Arithmetic Processors.Unit 4 : The Control Unit
The Control Unit, The Hardwired Control, Wilkes Control, The Micro-Programmed Control, The Micro-Instructions, Types of Micro-Instructions, Control Memory Organisation, Micro-Instruction Formats, The Execution of Micro-Program.Unit 5 : Reduced Instruction Set Computer Architecture
Introduction to RISC, RISC Architecture, The Use of Large Register File, Comments on RISC, RISC Pipelining.
Microcomputer Architecture, Structure of 8086 CPU, Register Set of 8086, Instruction Set of 8086, Data Transfer Instructions, Arithmetic Instructions, Bit Manipulation Instructions, Program Execution Transfer Instructions, String Instructions, Processor Control Instructions, Addressing Modes, Register Addressing Mode, Immediate Addressing Mode, Direct Addressing Mode, Indirect Addressing ModeUnit 2 : Introduction to Assembly Language Programming
The Need and Use of the Assembly Language, Assembly Program Execution, An Assembly Program and its Components, The Program Annotation, Directives, Input Output in Assembly Program, Interrupts, DOS Function Calls (Using INT 21H), The Types of Assembly Programs, COM Programs, EXE Programs, How to Write Good Assembly ProgramsUnit 3 : Assembly Language Programming (Part-I)
Simple Assembly Programs, Data Transfer, Simple Arithmetic Application, Application Using Shift Operations, Larger of the Two Numbers, Programming With Loops and Comparisons, Simple Program Loops, Find the Largest and the Smallest Array Values, Character Coded Data, Code Conversion, Programming for Arithmetic and String Operations, String Processing, Some More Arithmetic ProblemsUnit 4 : Assembly Language Programming (Part-II)
Use of Arrays in Assembly, Modular Programming, The stack, FAR and NEAR Procedures, Parameter Passing in Procedures, External Procedures, Interfacing Assembly Language Routines to High Level Language, Programs, Simple Interfacing, Interfacing Subroutines With Parameter Passing, Interrupts, Device Drivers in Assembly.
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